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How do Organisms Reproduce


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Previous year questions-


Q.1) What is Carpel? Write the functions of its various parts

ANS- Carpel is located at the centre of a flower and in the female reproductive organ of the plant. It is made up of three parts- stigma,style and ovary. 
Functions of its various parts are: 

Stigma: In the terminal part of the carpel, which is sticky and helps in receiving the pollen grains from the anther of the stamen during pollination. 

Style: Style is the middle elongated part of the carpel which connects stigma to the ovary. 

Ovary: It is the Swollen bottom part of of the carpel, which contains ovules and each ovule has an egg cell which is the female gamete.

Q.2) Define pollination. Explain the different types of pollination. List two agents of pollination? How does suitable pollination lead to fertilization.

ANS- Pollination is the transfer of pollen grains from the the anther of stamen to the stigma of carpel.

Different types of pollination:

1.) Self Pollination: It is the transfer of pollen grains from anther to the stigma within the flower or between two flowers of the same plant.

2.) Cross pollination: It is the transfer of pollen grains from anther to the stigma of two flowers on different plants of same species.

The two agents of pollination are wind and insect. 

When the Pollen Falls on a suitable stigma, pollen tube grows out of the pollen grain through the style to reach the ovary. Double fertilization occurs inside each embryo sac in which to fusions,syngamy and triple fusion takes place. When one male gamete fuses with the egg contained in the embryo sac of the ovule, zygote is formed.The other male gamete fuses with the two polar nuclei and the process is called triple fusion. After fertilization the zygote divides several times to form an embryo within an ovule. The oven then gets converted into a seed. The ovary develops and ripens to form a fruit.

Q.2) What is contraception? List three advantages of adopting contraceptive measures

ANS- Contraception is a method used to avoid pregnancy. 

Three advantages of adopting contraceptive measures are as follows: 


1. It helps in avoiding unwanted pregnancy. 

2. Condom helps in preventing sexually transmitted diseases. 

3. It helps in maintaining reproductive health in women


Thanks for reading the above question you must properly learn the question given above as they are most important as per the exam point of view. 

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